Tracing Institutional Role of Technical and Vocational Education and Training Skills for Socio-Economic Development of Women in Baluchistan

Aziz Ahmed, Muhammad Shakeel, Aliya Hashmi Khan


This paper describes socio-economic and demographic impacts of TVET provision for women empowerment in rural and urban areas of Baluchistan. Different economic factors and demographic attributes are examined with TVET programs on empirical counts for policy analysis. The analysis is descriptive and questionnaire based data from 178 TVET qualified women by using three stage stratified sampling technique are traced out in rural and urban areas of Baluchistan.

The factors like, self-employed status of women, parents’ education, ethnicity, household head characteristics, rural and urban set ups, institutional affiliation, and self-choice for a specific TVET trade contribute to socio-economic and demographic empowerment of women. Rural women are found to get less economic benefits of jobs and income earnings as compared to urban counterparts.

The tentative findings suggest for socio-economic and demographic impacts of TVET for women to support to the consensus of development for TVET contributions into human capital theory. The findings guide towards the profound contribution of TVET in theory of human capital formation and its socio-economic and demographic impacts specifically to women empowerment studies in the un-developed regions.

Full Text:



Acemoglu, D., & Pischke, J.-S. (1998). Why do firms train? Theory and evidence. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 113(1), 79-119.

Ahmed, M., & Baloch, A. (2015). Political Economy of Baluchistan, Pakistan: A Critical Review. European Scientific Journal, 11(14).

Ahmed, A., Khan, A. H., Shehnaz, L., Muhammad, W., & Ullah, S. W. (2018). Human resource development through technical and vocational education and trainings (TVET) system in Baluchistan: A critical SWOT analysis.

Ahmed, A., & Khan, A. H. (2018, September). SWOT analysis of institutional framework for engineering diplomas in technical and vocational education and training system in Pakistan. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 414, No. 1, p. 012011). IOP Publishing.

Ahmed, A. (2019). Impacts of Vocational Training for Socio-economic Development of Afghan Refugees in Labor Markets of Host Societies in Baluchistan. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 20(3), 751-768.

Akinpelu, J. (1984). Post-Literacy and Vocational Training in the Context of Rural Development and Income Generation in Africa. International Review of Education, 30(3), 315-328.

B-TEVTA Act no. II of 2011, (2011).

Baluchistan, G. o. (2012). The Baluchistan Government Rules of Business, 2012. Services and General Administration Department, Quetta: S&GSD (Regulation Wing).

Baluchistan, G. o. (2015). Baluchistan Youth Policy 2015. Environment, Sports & Youth Affairs Department. Civil Secretariat. Quetta.

Bank, A. D. (2009). Education and skills: Strategies for accelerated development in Asia and the Pacific. Retrieved from Manila, Philippines:

Becker, G. S. (1994). Human capital revisited Human Capital: A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis with Special Reference to Education (3rd Edition) (pp. 15-28): The University of Chicago Press.

Ben-Halim, Chusseau, N., & Hellier, J. (2014). Skill premia and intergenerational education mobility: The French case. Economics of Education Review, 39, 50-64.

Böckerman, P., Hämäläinen, U., & Uusitalo, R. (2009). Labour market effects of the polytechnic education reform: The Finnish experience. Economics of Education Review, 28(6), 672-681.

BRSP. (2017). Livelihood Program: Skill Development. Baluchistan Rural Support Program. Quetta.

C&SID. (2017). Commerce and Small Industries Department. Rules of Business, 2012. Quetta.

CH&TED. (2017). Colleges, Higher and Technical Education Department. Rules of Business, 2012. Quetta.

Commission, P. (2015). Pakistan Vision-2025. Islamabad.

Cooke, L. P. (2004). The gendered division of labor and family outcomes in Germany. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66(5), 1246-1259.

Department, W. D. (2017). Women Development [Press release]

Fleishera, B. M., & Wang, X. (2004). Skill differentials, return to schooling, and market segmentation in a transition economy: the case of Mainland China. Journal of Development Economics, 73(2004), 315– 328.

Galdo, J., & Chong, A. (2012). Does the quality of public-sponsored training programs matter? Evidence from bidding processes data. Labour Economics, 19, 970-986.

Heckman, J. J., Lochner, L. J., & Todd, P. E. (2003). Fifty years of Mincer earnings regressions. Retrieved from

Hill, E. T. (2002). The Labor Force Participation of Older Women: Retired-Working-Both. Monthly Lab. Rev., 125, 39.

ILO. (2003). Education and Training: Skills for Employability Including the Challenge of Youth Unemployment. Global Employment Forum. Retrieved from

Kazmi, S. W. (2007). Vocational education and skills development: A case of Pakistan. SAARC Journal of Human Resource Development, 3(1), 105-117.

Khan, A. R., & Bibi, Z. (2011). Women's socio-economic and demographic empowerment through participatory approach: a critical assessment. Pakistan Economic and Social Review, 133-148.

L&MPD. (2017). Labor & Manpower Department. Rules of Business, 2012. Quetta.

Maseda, M. R. (2017). Implementing Tracer Study: practical steps and tools. Retrieved from ETF expert © European Training Foundation, ETF/Martine Smit,

ETF/Joanna Anstey:

Mincer, J. (1974). Schooling, Experience, and Earnings. Human Behavior & Social Institutions No. 2.

Mustafa, U., Abbas, K., Saeed, A., & Anwar, T. (2005). Enhancing Vocational Training for Economic Growth in Pakistan [with Comments]. The Pakistan Development Review, 567-584.

NAVTTC. (2016). National Skill Information System. Sector F-5/1, Islamabad: NAVTTC.

Pakistan, G. o. (2015). National Skill Policy. Skills for Growth & Development: A Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Policy for Pakistan. Ministry of Federal Education and Professional Training, Islamabad.

Pavlova, M. (2014). TVET as an important factor in country’s economic development. SpringerPlus, 3(1), K3.

Rauf, A. (2015). [Personal Communication].

Schomburg, H. (2016). Carrying out tracer studies: guide to anticipating and matching skills and jobs: volume 6. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Schueler, J., Stanwick, J., & Loveder, P. (2017). A framework to better measure the return on investment from TVET.

Statistics, P. B. o. (2015). PSLM (2013/14). Retrieved from Statistics Division, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad:

SWD. (2017). Social Welfare Department. Rules of Business, 2012. Quetta.

Tan, E. (2014). Human capital theory: A holistic criticism. Review of Educational Research, 84(3), 411-445.

UNESCO-UNEVOC. (2016). Strategies for Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET): (2016-2012) Retrieved from

WDD. (2017). Women Development Department. Rules of Business, 2012. Quetta.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Maintained by: Software Section, Directorate of ICT