Farmers perception about yield losses of kinnow (Citrus reticulate) during its harvesting and post harvesting operations: A case study of tehsil Sargodha, Pakistan

Farhat Ullah Khan, Nowshad Khan, Fouzia Anjum


Kinnow is one of the major fruit crops of Pakistan and it is produced at a large scale in Punjab province of Pakistan. In Punjab province, the district Sargodha is famous for high production of kinnow. Unfortunately, during harvesting and post harvesting operations, the losses of kinnow yields in Pakistan are higher than that of other kinnow producing countries of the world. Therefore, this research study was conducted to observe various factors leading to yield losses of kinnow during harvesting and post harvesting. For it, 20 union councils of tehsil Sargodha were selected and from each union council, 10 kinnow growers were selected randomly. A total of 200 farmers were selected for the sample. The results revealed that 91% farmers reported fruit injuries during picking. A majority of farmers (67%) reported that 20% losses of the total yield occurred during picking. (51%) and 70% farmers did not have transport capabilities and storage facilities, respectively so losses occurred during these stages. Rough handling should be avoided during harvesting operation. Due to the defective marketing system, the farmers get low income which discourages the farmers from adopting recommended orchard management practices. Therefore, government should pay due attention to the establishment of an effective citrus marketing system.


Harvest and post-harvest; Kinnow; Sargodha; Yield losses

Full Text:



Abdullah, M., & Hossain, M. R. (2013). A new cooperative marketing strategy for agricultural products in Bangladesh. World Review of Business Research, 3(3), 130–144.

Ahmed, U. I., Ying, L., Mushtaq, K., & Bashir, M. K. (2015). An econometric estimation of post-harvest losses of kinnow in Pakistan. International Journal of Economics, Commerce and Management, 3(5), 373-383.

Ali, T. (2004). Marketing of citrus fruit in Pakistan. (Unpublished Doctoral dissertation). University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

Anjum, I. M. (2000). Operations of agricultural whole sale markets. A case study of Pakistan. Tokyo, Japan: Asian Productivity Organization.

Basra, S. M. H., & Farooq, M. (2006, December 11). Bottlenecks in rice marketing. Daily Dawn. Retrieved from

Farooq, M., Burfat, F. M., Abdullah, F., Muhammad, G., & Muhammad, A. F. (2016). The problems faced by fruit growers to market access: A case study of district Neelum Azad Jammu and Kashmir. Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences, 5(2), 1-10.

Ghafoor, U., Muhammad, S., & Chaudhary, K. M. (2008). Constrains in availability of inputs and information to citrus (kinnow) growers of tehsil Toba Tek Singh. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 45(4), 520-522.

Ghafoor, U., Muhammad, S., Chaudhary, K. M., Randhawa, M. A., & Ashraf, I. (2010). Harvesting and marketing problems faced by citrus (kinnow) growers of tehsil Toba Tek Singh. Journal of Agriculture Research, 48(2), 253-257. Government of Pakistan. (2003-2004). Pakistan Statistical Year Book. Federal Bureau of Statistics, Statistics Division, Islamabad.

Government of Pakistan. (2008-2009). Fruit, vegetables and condiments statistics of Pakistan. Ministry of Food and Agriculture (Economic Wing) Islamabad.

Kader, A. A., & Arpaia, M. L. (2002). Postharvest handling systems of subtropical crops. In A. A. Kader (Ed.), Postharvest Technology of Horticultural crops (3rd ed.), (pp. 385-398). University of California Press: Oakland.

Khan, D., & Shaukat, S. S. (2006). The fruits of Pakistan: Diversity, distribution, trends of production and use. International Journal of Biology and Biotechnology, 3(3), 463-499.

Shah, S. W. A., Jahangir, M., Qaisar, M., Khan, S. A., Mahmood, T., Saeed, M., Farid, A., & Liaquat, M. (2015). Storage stability of kinnow fruit (Citrus reticulata) as affected by CMC and guar gum-based silver nanoparticle coatings. Molecules, 20, 22645–22661.

Sharif, M., Farooq, U., & Malik, W. (2005). Citrus marketing in Punjab: Constraints and potential for improvement. The Pakistan Development Review, 44(4), 673-693.

Shahzad, M., Tahir, A., Jehan, N., & Luqman, M. (2015). Impact of different packaging technologies on postharvest losses of stone fruits in Swat Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 28(1), 53-63.

Tahir, A. (2014). Forecasting citrus exports in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Research, 27(1), 64-68.

Vadivelu, A., & Kiran, B. R. (2013). Problems and prospects of agricultural marketing in India: An overview. International Journal of Agricultural and Food Science, 3(3), 108-118.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article