Evaluation of Teaching Reading Strategies Used by Early Grade Teachers

Sher Zaman


The importance of reading ability is admissible especially for youngers. There is interdependency between students’ learning and teaching reading strategies used by English language teachers. Research claims that different teaching strategies used by teachers help in development of students’ reading ability. The purpose of current study is to explore and evaluate teaching reading strategies used by early grade teachers. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the teaching reading strategies which are used by early grade teachers for developing students’ word recognition, reading fluency and text comprehension. Self-developed tool i.e. structured observation schedule was used for data collection. For this purpose, quantitative research method cross- sectional survey design was applied to collect data from sampled primary English teachers (n = 10). Three consecutive observations were conducted for each subject of the study. Descriptive statistics frequencies, percentage and mean were used to analyze the collected data. The results of the study show that most of teachers mainly focus on oral expression and meanings of difficult words. While majority of teachers do not use teaching reading strategies for developing students phonemic awareness, pronunciation, repeated reading practices and text comprehension skills. It can be evaluated on the basis of results discussion that teachers least use the research based teaching reading strategies for developing students’ English reading in early grades. To sum up this study highlighted that there is a scarcity of using relevant teaching reading strategies to accomplish the standards, benchmarks and SLOs on NCEL (2006). It is strongly recommended that focused training programs with proper pursue should be planned for changing the beliefs and enhancing teachers’ professional proficiency for developing reading skill of the students.
Key Terms: Reading, strategies, early graders, phonemic-awareness, word recognition,
Pronunciation, fluency and text comprehension

Full Text:




Alcantara, R. D. (2003) Teaching strategies for teaching communication: Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing, Manila: Kath. Publishing Co. Inc.

Andrejs, G. & Antra, O. (2008). Factors Influencing Reading Literacy at the Primary School Level, Problems of Education in the 21st Century, 6.

Archer, A., Gleason, M., & Vachon, V. (2003). Decoding and fluency: Foundation skills for struggling older readers’ Learning Disability, Quarterly, 26(2), 89-101.

Armbruster, B. L. & Osborne. J. F. (2001). Put Reading First. The research building blocks for teaching children to read, kindergarten through grade 3. Washington, DC: National Inst. for Literacy

Chintha, M., (2008).Teaching Reading in the Early Grades: A Teacher’s Handbook, South Africa: Department of Education.

Fraenkel, J. & Norman, E. (2006). How to Design and Evaluate Research in Education (6th ed), New York: McGraw Hill, America.

Gove, A. & Cvelich, P. (2011). Early Reading: Igniting Education for All. A Report by the Early Grade Learning Community of Practice, Revised Edition, Research Triangle Institute (RTI).

Govt. of Punjab (2011). ASER, Pakistan facilitated by SAFED.

Govt. of Punjab (2012). ASER, Pakistan facilitated by SAFED.

Govt. of Punjab (2013). ASER, Pakistan facilitated by SAFED.

Govt. of Punjab (2014). ASER, Pakistan facilitated by SAFED.

Govt. of Punjab (2014). Six Monthly Assessment Report, by CM, Roadmap Team Punjab, Pakistan.

Kuhn, M. & Rasinski, T., (2007). Best Practices in Fluency Instruction (3rd ed), New York: The Guilford Press.

Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel Psychology, 28, 563-575.

Mackay, S. L. (2002). Teaching English as an International Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Rahman, T. (1998). Language and Politics in Pakistan. Karachi: Oxford University Press.

Rahman, T. (2002). Language, Ideology and Power. Karachi: Oxford University Press.

Rassool, N. & Mansoor, S. (2009). Contemporary issues in language, education and development in Pakistan. In N. Rasool (ed.), Global Issues in Language, Education and Development: Perspectives from Post-colonial Countries, 218-244. New Delhi: Orient Longman.

Wallace, C. (2003) Reading Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Warsi, J. (2004). Conditions under which English is taught in Pakistan: An Applied Linguistic Perspective. SARID Journal, 1 (1), 1-9.

Wolf, M. (2007). Proust and the Squid: The Story and Science of the Reading Brain. New York: Harper

Zafar, A. (2012). Teacher’s Guide: English Grade 3. Lahore: Directorate of Staff Development.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Maintained By: Hatib Shabbir, Directorate Of ICT, AIOU