Effects of Father’s Absence on Child Growth and Development During Early Years

Sana Lakhani, Sanober Nadeem

Abstract


Presence of both mother and father are crucial for optimum emotional, spiritual and physical development of children. The main purpose of this study was to explore mother perceptions regarding the effects of father’s absence on child growth and development. The qualitative approach was used to explore this phenomenon with mothers of 1 to 8 years old children, where father was absent since last six months. Two focus group discussions and five In-depth interviews were conducted in three middle class communities of Karachi, Pakistan. Each FGD involved 10 mothers who were recruited through purposive sampling and consented to participate. Findings of the current study have been categorized into four main themes as father's role in child development, Problems mothers face while nurturing their children and the support systems of mothers and family. Study concluded that physical absent of father contributed in negative outcome on child emotional, social, psychological and physical development. Mother experienced stress and depression while handling many responsibilities on everyday lives. Girl child and boy child both suffers equally and need their father presence in social and academic activities and daily life. While making programs for holistic child development policy maker should consider this issue.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ahmad, M. S. (2013). Effects of father absence on children’s academic

performance. Journal of Educational, Health and Community Psychology,3(1). DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.26555/jehcp.v3i1.a3728

Shenk, M.K., Starkweather, K., Kress, H.C. &Alam, N. (2013). Does absence matters? Human Nature, 24(1), 76-110.

Barajas, M. S. (2011). Academic achievement of children in single parent homes: A critical review. The Hilltop Review,5(1),13-21.

Blundell, S. (2002). Fatherless sons: Psychoanalytic psychotherapy with bereaved boys. In Etchegoyen, A. & Trowell, J. (Ed.). The Importance of Fathers: A Psychoanalytic Re-evaluation. Hove, East Sussex: Brunner-Routledge.

Child Development Institute. (2009). Social emotional development in children with absent father. Child development, 671-680.

Cynthia C. Harper & McLanahan, S. S. (2004). Father absence and youth incarceraton. Journal of Research on Adolescence,14(3), 369-397.

Cynthia Osborne, S. M. (2007). Partnership instability and child well-being. Journal of Marriage and Family,69(4), 1065-1083.

Eastin, J. F. (2003). Impact of absent father-figures on male subjects and the correlation to juvenile delinquency: Findings and implications [doctoral dissertation]. Retrieved from https://pdfs.semanticscholar. org/2668/4818350e43e37d63e64d2930e0444b32f888.pdf

Ellis, B. J., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K.A., Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L.J., Pettit, G.S. & Woodward, L. (2013). Does father absence place daughters at special risk for early sexual activity and teenage? Child Development,74(3), 801-821.

Elizeath Thomson, T. L. (2000). Family structure and child wellbeing. Social Forces, 1(73), 221-42.

Jane Mendle, C. A.-G. (2009). Associations between father absence and age of first sexual intercourse. Child Development, 80(5), 1463–1480.

Fomby, P. & Osborne,C. (2013). The relative effects of family instability and mother/partner conflict on children’s behavior. Retrieved from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.539.5121&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Jones, K. (2004). Assessing psychological separation and academic performance in nonresident-father and resident-father boys. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal, 21(4), 333-354.

Kimani, E. (2000). Challeges faced by nuclear familes with absent fathers in Gadundu, Central Kenya. The African Symposium,10(2), 11-25.

Mancini, L. & Briggs. (2010). Father absence and its effects on daughters. Child Development. Retreieved from http://library.wcsu. edu/dspace/bitstream/0/527/1/Final+Thesis.pdf

Svanum, S., Bringly R.G. & McLanghlin, J. E. (1982). Father absence and cognitive performance in a large sample of six- to eleven-year-old children. Child Development, 53(1), 136-143.

Santrock, J. W. (1972). Relation of type and onset of father absence to

cognitive development. Child Development, 43(2), 455-469.

Sara McLanahan, L. T. (2013). The casual effects of father absence. The Annual Review of Sociology,39,399-427.

Sigle-Rushton, Wendy and McLanahan, Sara. (2004). Father absence and child wellbeing: a critical review In Moynihan, D.P. and Rainwater, L. and Smeeding, T., (eds.) The Future of the Family. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, USA.

McLoyd, V. C., Jayaratne, T. E., Cebalo, R. & Borquez, J. (1994). Unemployment and work interruption among african american single mothers. Child Development, 65(2), 562—589.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Maintained By: Hatib Shabbir, Directorate Of ICT, AIOU