An Investigation of AIOU Students’ Satisfaction about Formative M-Assessment Using SMS Technology

Kamran Mir, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal, Jahan Ara Shams


Open and Distance Learning (ODL) plays an important role in providing education to the students of rural and remote areas. In ODL, learning feedback and assessment process of learners requires time and cost using classical communication techniques. Emerging technologies like Mobile Assessment (M-Assessment) has gained momentum because of its potential as a useful electronic assessment tool available on widely used mobile devices. The mobile phone usage in Pakistan over the last ten year has been increased incredibly but the potential of Short Messaging Service (SMS) technology in assessment activity has not been fully explored. This study focuses on mobile SMS usage for formative assessment in distance learning environment of Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU). The key objective of this study was to investigate AIOU students’ satisfaction about the technology acceptance model for M-Assessment. The software has been developed in open source programming language using SMS web-service on the backend to conduct mobile based quiz. The survey methodology applied to test the technology acceptance model for M-Assessment showed that the majority (87%) of the respondents are satisfied with this mobile assessment method. It was tested on 277 selected students of Intermediate, Bachelor and Master’s level enrolled in English and Information Technology courses at AIOU. Around 90% of the respondents regarded it as one of the quickest assessment methods. It was recommended to use this software in the assessment of ODL students.

Full Text:



Angelo, T. A. and Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom Assessment Techniques. New York, NY: Jossey-Bass.

Belawati, T., Baggaley, J., and Dhanarajan, G. (2010). Distance Education in Asia: the PANdora Guidebook.

Khan, S., Mir, K., Tahir, A., Awan, A., Nisa, Z., & Gillani, S. (2018). Allocation of Tutors and Study Centers in Distance Learning Using Geospatial Technologies. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 7(5), 185.

Lee, Y., Kozar, K. A., and Larsen, K. R. (2003). The Technology Acceptance Model: Past, Present, and Future. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 12(1), 50.

Masood, M. (2004). A Ten Year Analysis: Trends in Traditional Educational Technology Literature. Malaysian Online Journal of Instructional Technology (MOJIT), 1( 2), 19.

Mir, K. (2009). Use of Mobile-Assessment In Distance Learning. Presented in Mobile Government Consortium International conference, Barcelona, Spain.

Mir, K. (2017). Design and Development of Online Student Support System. Pakistan Journal of Distance and Online Learning, 3(1), 1-10.

Nicol, D. J. and Macfarlane‐Dick, D. (2006). Formative Assessment and Self‐regulated Learning: A model and seven principles of good feedback practice. Studies in Higher Education, 31(2), 199-218.

Powell, T. A. (2002). Web design. California, San Diego: McGraw-Hill.

Ramli, A., Ismail, I. B., and Idrus, R. M. (2010). Mobile Learning Via SMS Among Distance Learners: Does Learning Transfer Occur? International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies (iJIM), 4(3), 30-35.

Ramos, A. J. O. (2005). The Viability of Mobile SMS Technologies for Non-Formal Distance Learning in Asia. Presented in m-learn 2005 Conference, South Africa.

Sangi, N. A. (2008). Electronic Assessment Issues and Practices in Pakistan: A Case Study. Learning, Media and Technology, 33(3), 191-206.

Sangi, N. and Ahmed, M. (2007). E-Learning Initiatives at AIOU: a case study of using ICT in education. 1st E-Learning & Distance Education Conference, Lahore, Pakistan.

Yousuf, M. I. (2007). Effectiveness of Mobile Learning in Distance Education. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 8(4), 114-124.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Maintained By: sabir.khan, Directorate Of ICT, AIOU