Teaching the Privileged? Observations on the (UN) Inclusiveness of Online Education during Pandemic

Nashia Ajaz

Abstract


Coronavirus pandemic has changed the existing norms of life all over the world. Among other areas of life, the pandemic has also hit the education sector, where recent statistics show that around 500 Million students worldwide were unable to access remote learning. In developing countries like Pakistan, which is amongst the top-twenty countries impacted by the pandemic, and where around 23 million children were already out of school, much of the progress made over the years has reversed. Drawing on 'Faucet Theory,' this paper questions the inclusiveness of online higher education and argues that the stories of successful shifting to online education seem to be unexclusive, representing only privileged students, while neglecting the under-privileged students. Exclusions faced by the under-privileged students, including those related to technological, financial, and social, have been highlighted through the present research, emerging from a close analysis of informal conversations with approximately 90 female students of undergraduate level in Pakistan. The study recommends further in-depth research unveiling the stories and implications for those left out in online education during the Coronavirus pandemic.

Keywords: Coronavirus; COVID-19; online education;
inclusion; privilege

Full Text:

PDF

References


Ajaz, N. (2014). Cost effectiveness of Open and Distance learning in Pakistan. International Journal of Health & Education, 3(1), 47–55. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Nashia_Ajaz/publication/336263450_Cost_Effectiveness_of_Open_and_Distance_Learning_in_Pakistan/links/5d9774f7a6fdccfd0e77b8b8/Cost-Effectiveness-of-Open-and-Distance-Learning-in-Pakistan.pdf

Ansari, A., Hofkens, T. L., & Pianta, R. C. (2020). Absenteeism in the First Decade of Education Forecasts Civic Engagement and Educational and Socioeconomic Prospects in Young Adulthood. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 49(9), 1835–1848. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-020-01272-4

Atkinson, P., Coffey, A., Delamont, S., Lofland, J., Lofland, L., EMERSON, R. M., … SHAW, L. L. (2001). Participant Observation and Fieldnotes. In Handbook of Ethnography (1st ed.). Sage Publications, Inc. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781848608337.n24

Bozkurt, A., & Sharma, R. C. (2020). Emergency remote teaching in a time of global crisis due to CoronaVirus pandemic. Asian Journal of Distance Education, 15(1), i–vi. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3778083

Carey, K. (2020, March 13). Everybody Ready for the Big Migration to Online College? Actually, No. The Newyork Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/13/upshot/coronavirus-online-college-classes-unprepared.html

Chick, R. C., Clifton, G. T., Peace, K. M., Propper, B. W., Hale, D. F., Alseidi, A. A., & Vreeland, T. J. (2020). Using Technology to Maintain the Education of Residents During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Surgical Education, 77(4), 729–732. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsurg.2020.03.018

Cojocariu, V.-M., Lazar, I., Nedeff, V., & Lazar, G. (2014). SWOT Anlysis of E-learning Educational Services from the Perspective of their Beneficiaries. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 1999–2003. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.01.510

Ducharme, J. (2020). World Health Organization Declares COVID-19 a “Pandemic.” Here’s What That Means. Retrieved October 12, 2020, from https://time.com/5791661/who-coronavirus-pandemic-declaration/

Entwisle, D. R., Alexander, K. L., & Olson, L. S. (2001). Keep the Faucet Flowing | American Federation of Teachers. Retrieved from https://www.aft.org/periodical/american-educator/fall-2001/keep-faucet-flowing

Ferrel, M. N., & Ryan, J. J. (2020). The Impact of COVID-19 on Medical Education. Cureus, 12(3), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7492

Huber, S. G., & Helm, C. (2020). COVID-19 and schooling: evaluation, assessment and accountability in times of crises—reacting quickly to explore key issues for policy, practice and research with the school barometer. Educational Assessment, Evaluation and Accountability, 32, 237–270. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11092-020-09322-y

McKibbin, W., & Fernando, R. (2020). The Global Macroeconomic Impacts of COVID-19: Seven Scenarios. Asian Economic Papers, 3, 1–45. https://doi.org/10.1162/asep_a_00796

Murphy, M. P. A. (2020). COVID-19 and emergency eLearning: Consequences of the securitization of higher education for post-pandemic pedagogy. Contemporary Security Policy, 41(3), 492–505. https://doi.org/10.1080/13523260.2020.1761749

Ozili, P. K., & Arun, T. (2020). Spillover of COVID-19: Impact on the Global Economy. SSRN Electronic Journal. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3562570

Reimers, F., Schleicher, A., Saavedra, J., & Tuominen, S. (2020). Supporting the continuation of teaching and learning during the COVID-19 pandemic. Oecd, 1, 1–38. Retrieved from https://globaled.gse.harvard.edu/files/geii/files/supporting-the-continuation-of-teaching-and-learning-during-the-covid-19-pandemic.pdf

Sedgwick, P. (2012). The Hawthorne effect. BMJ (Online). The BMJ. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.d8262

Torales, J., O’Higgins, M., Castaldelli-Maia, J. M., & Ventriglio, A. (2020). The outbreak of COVID-19 coronavirus and its impact on global mental health. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 66(4), 317–320. https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764020915212

UNESCO. (2005). Guidelines for Inclusion: Ensuring Access to Education for All. United Nations Educational, Scientifi c and Cultural Organization.

UNESCO. (2020). Education: From disruption to recovery. Retrieved November 18, 2020, from https://en.unesco.org/covid19/educationresponse

Williamson, K., Given, L. M., & Scifleet, P. (2018). Qualitative data analysis. In Research Methods: Information, Systems, and Contexts: Second Edition (2nd ed.). Chandos Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-102220-7.00019-4

World Health Organization. (2020). A Joint Statement on Tourism and COVID-19 - UNWTO and WHO Call for Responsibility and Coordination. Retrieved October 21, 2020, from https://www.who.int/news/item/27-02-2020-a-joint-statement-on-tourism-and-covid-19---unwto-and-who-call-for-responsibility-and-coordination

Zhang, W., Wang, Y., Yang, L., & Wang, C. (2020). Suspending Classes Without Stopping Learning: China’s Education Emergency Management Policy in the COVID-19 Outbreak. Journal of Risk and Financial Management, 13(55), 1–6. https://doi.org/10.3390/jrfm13030055


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Maintained By: sabir.khan, Directorate Of ICT, AIOU