Self Control of Special Children: An Exploratory Study

Jahan Ara Shams, Safia Janjua, Muhammad Zafar Iqbal


Special children are also part of the society and have equal rights of education like other children of the society. Self control (SC) is a fundamental skill which empowers people to be glad and effective, and it can and should be enhanced through education. It inculcates desirable behavior and eradicates undesirable behavior. Purpose of this study was to explore the nature of SC among special children which were physically handicapped. The study was qualitative in nature. Participants of the research were 15 special children (10 boys and 5 girls) and their mean age was 14.6 years. The context of the study was Mirpur AJK, Pakistan. A structured interview protocol was designed to explore the nature of SC. The interview was validated by the experts. Data taken from the interviews conducted on special children was then analyzed by using descriptive coding technique. The study revealed that special children have some of the aspects of good SC like empathy, find ease for others, do not create problems for others but they lacks many of the aspects like controlling anger, working for longer periods, thinking of long term consequences, try to do difficult tasks. It shows the poor SC in them that needs to be developed. So it is recommended to develop SC among special children through different healthy activities that should be included in the co-curricular activities during school times. Training sessions for the special teachers must include the knowledge of SC so they better able to develop good SC in their students.
Key words: Self control (SC), special children, Pakistan

Full Text:



Bennett, P., Elliott, M., & Peters, D. (2005). Classroom and Family Effects on Children's Social and Behavioral Problems. The Elementary School Journal, 105(5), 461-480. doi: 10.1086/431887

Cooper, B. H., Moore, J. E., Powers, C. J. Cleveland, M. J., & Greenberg, M. T. (2014). Patterns of Early Reading and Social Skills Associated With Academic Success in Elementary School. Early Education and Development, 25(8), 1248-1264. doi: 10.1080/10409289.2014.932236.

Cunha, F., & Heckman, J. (2007). The technology of skill formation. American Economic Review, 97(2), 31–47. doi: 10.1257/aer.97.2.31

De Ridder, T. D., Lensvelt-Mulders, G., Finkenauer, C., Stok, F. M., Baumeister, R. F. (2012). Taking Stock of Self-Control: A Meta-Analysis of How Trait Self-Control Relates to a Wide Range of Behaviors. Journal of personality and Social Psychology Review, 6(1), 76-99. doi: 10.1177/1088868311418749

Duckworth, A. L. (2011). The significance of self-control. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 108(7), 2639–2640. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01641.x

Duckworth, A. L., Seligman, M. E. P. (2005). Self-Discipline Outdoes IQ in Predicting Academic Performance of Adolescents. Journal of Psychological Sciences, 16(12), 939-944. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01641.x

Fraenkel, J. R., & Wallen, N. E., Hyun, H .H. (2006). How to design and evaluate research in education. McGraw Hill. New York.

Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. : Stanford University Press.

Hassan, A. E. H. (2015). Emotional and Behavioral Problems of Children with Learning disabilities. Journal of Educational Policy and Entrepreneurial Research, 2(10). 66-74.

Howse, R. B., Lange, G, Farran, D. C, & Boyles, C. D. (2003). Motivation and self regulation as predictors of achievement in economically disadvantaged young children. Journal of Experimental Education, 71(2), 151-174. doi: 10.1080/00220970309602061

Hussain, M., Khattak, M., Butt, N., Shah, N.H., Afridi, M., & Naeem, M.. (2013). Impacts of Special Education on Personality of Special People. Educational Research International. 1(1). 82-97.

Landrum, T. J., Tankersley, M. & Kauffman, J. M. (2003). What Is Special About Special Education for Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disorders? The Journal of Special Education, 37(3). 148–156.

Moffitt, T. E., Arseneault, L., Belsky, D., Dickson, N., Hancox, R. J., Harrington, H., Hoyts, R., Poulton, R., Roberts, B. W., Ross, S., Sears, M. R., Thomson, W. M., Caspi, A. (2011). A gradient of childhood self-control predicts health, wealth, and public safety. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, 108(7), 2693–2698. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1010076108.

Moffitt, T. E., Poulton, R., & Caspi, A. (2013). Lifelong impact of early self-control. American Scientist, 100(5), 352–359. Retrieved December 28, 2018 from

Piquero, A.R., Jenninings, W.G., Farrington, D. P. (2010). On the Malleability of Self‐Control: Theoretical and Policy Implications Regarding a General Theory of Crime. Justice Quarterly, 27(6), 803-834. doi: 10.1080/07418820903379628

Pratt, T. C., & Cullen, F. T. (2000). The empirical status of Gottfredson and Hirschi’s general theory of crime: A meta-analysis. Criminology, 38(3), 931–964. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.2000.tb00911.x

Ronen, T., Hamama, L., Rosenbaum, M., Mishely-Yarlap, A. (2016). Subjective Well-Being in Adolescence: The Role of Self-Control, Social Support, Age, Gender, and Familial Crisis. Journal of Happiness Studies. 17(1), 81–104. doi: 10.1007/s10902-014-9585-5

Schmeichel, B. J., Vohs, K. D., & Baumeister, R. F. (2003). Intellectual performance and ego depletion: Role of the self in logical reasoning and other information processing. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 33–46. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.85.1.33

Tangney, J. P., Baumeister, R. F., & Boone, A. L. (2004). High self-control predicts good adjustment, less pathology, better grades, and interpersonal success. Journal of Personality, 72(2), 271–324. doi: 10.1111/j.0022-3506.2004.00263.x

Turner, M. G., Piquero, A. R., & Pratt, T. C. (2005). The school context as a source of self-control. Journal of Criminal Justice, 33(4), 327-339. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2005.04.003

Vazsonyi, A., Mikuska, J., & Kelley, E. (2017). It’s time: A meta-analysis on the self-control-deviance link. Journal of Criminal Justice, 48, 48–63. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2016.10.001


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments


Maintained By: Hatib Shabbir, Directorate Of ICT, AIOU