Carbazole based bipolar host materials for organic electroluminescent devices -recent advances

Abdul Bais, Muhammad Zaman Ashraf


Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are emerging technology for flat panel displays and lighting applications because they are highly efficient, ultrathin, lightweight and flexible and exhibit multicolour emission. Phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLEDs) are more important than fluorescent based OLEDs in term of higher internal quantum efficiency. The emissive layer (EML) of OLEDs employed host material to reduce concentration quenching and triplet–triplet annihilation of the dopant. Carbazole based bipolar molecules have attracted much interest as host materials for organic light emitting diode (OLED) because of the advantageous properties of cabazole group to form stable radical cations(holes) along with high charge carrier mobilities. This minireview is a selection from recent advances in the design and synthesis of carbazole based host materials for OLEDs.

Full Text:



Blom, P., Tanase, C., De Leeuw, D., & Coehoorn, R. (2005). Thickness scaling of the space-charge-limited current in poly (p-phenylene vinylene). Applied Physics Letters, 86(9), 092105.

Chou, S.-H., Hung, W.-Y., Chen, C.-M., Liu, Q.-Y., Liu, Y.-H., & Wong, K.-T. (2013). Manipulation of connecting topology in carbazole/benzimidazole universal bipolar host materials for RGB and White PhOLEDs. RSC Advances, 3(33), 13891-13900.

Gong, W.-L., Wang, B., Aldred, M. P., Li, C., Zhang, G.-F., Chen, T., Wang, L., & Zhu, M.-Q. (2014). Tetraphenylethene-decorated carbazoles: synthesis, aggregation-induced emission, photo-oxidation and electroluminescence. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 2(34), 7001-7012.

Gong, W.-L., Zhong, F., Aldred, M. P., Fu, Q., Chen, T., Huang, D.-K., Shen, Y., Qiao, X.-F., Ma, D., & Zhu, M.-Q. (2012). Carbazole oligomers revisited: new additions at the carbazole 1-and 8-positions. RSC Advances, 2(29), 10821-10828.

Hu, M., Liu, Y., Chen, Y., Song, W., Gao, L., Mu, H., Huang, J., & Su, J. (2017). Highly efficient triazine/carbazole-based host material for green phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with low efficiency roll-off. RSC Advances, 7(12), 7287-7292.

Köhler, A., Wilson, J. S., & Friend, R. H. (2002). Fluorescence and phosphorescence in organic materials. Advanced Engineering Materials, 4(7), 453.

Kotchapradist, P., Prachumrak, N., Tarsang, R., Jungsuttiwong, S., Keawin, T., Sudyoadsuk, T., & Promarak, V. (2013). Pyrene-functionalized carbazole derivatives as non-doped blue emitters for highly efficient blue organic light-emitting diodes. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 1(32), 4916-4924.

Moonsin, P., Prachumrak, N., Namuangruk, S., Jungsuttiwong, S., Keawin, T., Sudyoadsuk, T., & Promarak, V. (2014). Bifunctional oligofluorene-cored carbazole dendrimers as solution-processed blue emitters and hole transporters for electroluminescent devices. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 2(28), 5540-5552.

Partridge, R. (1983). Electroluminescence from polyvinylcarbazole films: Electroluminescence using higher work function cathodes. Polymer, 24(6), 755-762.

Pope, M., Kallmann, H., & Magnante, P. (1963). Electroluminescence in organic crystals. The Journal of Chemical Physics, 38(8), 2042-2043.

Salunke, J. K., Wong, F., Feron, K., Manzhos, S., Lo, M. F., Shinde, D., Patil, A., Lee, C., Roy, V., & Sonar, P. (2016). Phenothiazine and carbazole substituted pyrene based electroluminescent organic semiconductors for OLED devices. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 4(5), 1009-1018.

Shuai, Z., Beljonne, D., Silbey, R., & Brédas, J.-L. (2000). Singlet and triplet exciton formation rates in conjugated polymer light-emitting diodes. Physical Review Letters, 84(1), 131.

Su, S.-J., Sasabe, H., Takeda, T., & Kido, J. (2008). Pyridine-containing bipolar host materials for highly efficient blue phosphorescent OLEDs. Chemistry of Materials, 20(5), 1691-1693.

Tang, C., Bi, R., Tao, Y., Wang, F., Cao, X., Wang, S., Jiang, T., Zhong, C., Zhang, H., & Huang, W. (2015). A versatile efficient one-step approach for carbazole–pyridine hybrid molecules: highly efficient host materials for blue phosphorescent OLEDs. Chemical Communications, 51(9), 1650-1653.

Tang, C. W., & VanSlyke, S. A. (1987). Organic electroluminescent diodes. Applied Physics Letters, 51(12), 913-915.

Tao, Y., Wang, Q., Yang, C., Wang, Q., Zhang, Z., Zou, T., Qin, J., & Ma, D. (2008). A simple carbazole/oxadiazole hybrid molecule: an excellent bipolar host for green and red phosphorescent OLEDs. Angewandte Chemie, 120(42), 8224-8227.

Thoms, T. (2003). Bipolar asymmetric carbazole-based host materials for electrophosphorescent guest-host OLED systems: Google Patents.

Weiner, R. (2005). Nanoelectronics and Information Technology: Advanced Electronic Materials and Novel Devices: Wiley-VCH.

Wohlgenannt, M., Tandon, K., Mazumdar, S., Ramasesha, S., & Vardeny, Z. V. (2001). Formation cross-sections of singlet and triplet excitons in π-conjugated polymers. Nature, 409(6819), 494-497.


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Comments on this article

View all comments

Copyright (c) 2016 Journal of Contemporary Research in Chemistry